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Egypt was not only one of the earliest of the great civilisations, it also survived, relatively unchanged, longer than almost any other did. This was due to the fact that natural barriers on all four compass points protected it. To the West was desert, the Mediterranean Sea lay to the North, the Red Sea protected the East and to the South was Tropical Africa.

The protection afforded by these natural barriers, however, did not mean that the Ancient Egyptians did not themselves guard their frontiers. Frontier guards could escort "visitors" into Egypt, expel them or refuse them entry.

Because of the fertile strips of land on both banks of the Nile ("The Cultivation"), Egypt was able to prosper independently of the Mediterranean rains. The rich agriculture provided more than enough food for the population, and surpluses were stored in granaries. Famine elsewhere in the Middle East led to both passive and aggressive migrations into Egypt. Famous passive migrations include the Hebrew migration led by Jacob and his sons under the instigation of Joseph. Some time later, the Edomite tribesmen (Northern Egypt's eastern neighbours) were "escorted" into Egypt, " keep them alive, and to keep their cattle alive, through the great provision of the Pharaoh".

The famous famine-induced invasions of Egypt were by the Sea Peoples. There is little wonder why so many of the granaries were walled-off.

Very few Ancient Egyptian towns remain to be excavated because many are buried beneath modern cities. Paintings and models, however, suggest that poorer people lived in single-storey dwellings, often in the shade of the richer, multi-storeyed buildings.

Many Egyptian scenes depicting warfare show Egyptian soldiers attacking fortified cities. The fortifications are clearly shown with semi-circular merlons (as depicted in the models offered by Monolith). Some such scenes show Egyptians fighting on both sides of the walls, and may represent wars of unification or liberaton. Other scenes represent sieges in Canaan, Syria, etc.

Siege techniques illustrated include excavation, scaling ladders, siege towers, battering rams and testudines.

What possible function could a tomb play on a battlefield? There are recorded instances of a Necropolis being the site of a battle. Also, the Egyptians venerated their dead relatives and had to "feed" the spirit of their ancestors at their burial place every day. Because of this, every town would have a burial ground very close by.

All of the Ancient Egyptian models are suitable for use in the Palestine of the late Bronze Age, especially "cult" pieces 2502, 2510 and 2518. The 2- and 3-storey buildings (2505-2508) and the thatched stall would also be suitable for use in Turkish and Aegean Settings of the same period.
These models, together with the fortifications and vaulted building are also suitable for use up to the present day in North Africa, Egypt, etc.

The 2- and 3-storey buildings, fortifications and barrel-vaulted buildings are also suitable for use up to the present day in North Africa, Egypt and elsewhere in the Middle East.

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Clean up any casting faults with a sharp knife and fill minor air bubbles with epoxy putty. Several identical models can be individualised by repairing "damage" with putty and scribing new details to match the existing features. Note that the Ancient Egyptians used standard sizes for bricks, and the courses of bricks were very regular.
For worker buildings or any non whitewashed scenic, first prime with white primer. Paint on thinned raw sienna oil paint and wipe off with a sponge until the desired effect is obtained.

For white-washed scenics, use the above method as a first painting stage, or prime with raw sienna (oil or acrylic) and allow to dry. Then wet-brush a mixture of raw sienna and white, leaving patches of the first layer showing through. Then, using the same technique, repeat with white enamel or acrylic.

The Egyptians loved to decorate their architecture, both internally and externally. Buildings often had coloured bands painted on the outer walls to distinguish between the different storeys. Alternatively, they had two or more bands painted around the tops or bottoms of the walls. Windows and doors were also decorated by the addition of one or two borders. Cartouche-type inscriptions bearing the owner's name sometimes appeared above the door.

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